From this essay it is clear that parties are political institutions linking society and state. Not only are they a revealing reflection of state-society relationships but in the right circumstances they themselves may help to shape these relationships, that is, they can constitute an independent not merely a dependent political variable. It has most fortunately been noticed that during times of actual national crises, all such parties do come together in spite of their different thinking, priorities, limitations etc. However, when the situation is peace and concern is economy, politics, future elections, regional/community based issues etc. these parties have very limited collective will in overall interests of the nation. Personality based politics take the cake, and the fact is true across international borders. This is especially so in two party and multi-party systems.
This paper highlights thatpolitical parties as institutions no longer seem to exist in real world. The general perception is that parties in most countries are organisationally weaker, more dependent on individual leaders and the informal processes of clientelism, less ideological or programmatic, and less securely ‘rooted’ in society, than some of their western counterparts.The media also places more emphasis on candidates as individuals than as agents of parties and party platforms. Public attention now focuses on the personalities and ideas of candidates, rather than the benefits that the party as an organization can offer party loyalists…. This aspect has always been the turning point in the history of political party and it has gradually shifted from an organisation that represented people to an organisation which became self serving. An organisation which has forgotten its raison d’etre cannot look after people’s interests adequately. Finally, it will collapse into another self serving organisation. Thus, it is important to study the aspects of formation of a political party and the prevailing governmental systems, both of which have profound effect on its efficacy in pursuing a common. BASIS OF FORMING A POLITICAL PARTY A political party normally forms due to a variety of reasons. Some such causes and their eventual capability in pursuing common causes are enumerated in succeeding paragraphs. Western political scientist Duverger (1954)2, has tended to focus on organizational features, distinguishing between: Cadre parties set up by ‘notables’ to get them into parliament, with limited organization. Evidently, the sole purpose of such parties is to grab power, and then hold on to it as far as possible. Mass parties either, as in communist parties, cell-based and highly disciplined or in the class-mass type referred to above, enjoying a degree of internal democracy. While they may serve limited purpose as they did for a long time in many parts of the world, many have now slowly realised the eventuality and turned towards a more progressive outlook leading to re-mapping the world boundaries. Some others are slowly going from bad to worse situation. Catch-all parties that originally evolved out of class-mass parties. Electoral-professional party most recently, reflecting developments in communications technology and electoral