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The relatiobship of sport deviance and drug use in sport

Aside from this, the Major League Baseball had also suffered from the revelations that some of the players used steroids. Also, it is inevitable to cite the most recent case of doping done by the world-renowned cyclist, Lance Armstrong, in the field of cycling (Longman, 2003. Klosterman, 2012). Moreover, Coakley (2009) cited that drug use in sport can be understood through the use of the constructionist approach. In this manner, drug use is considered as a deviant overconformity, such that the athletes and other people involved overconform with the norms stipulated by the sports ethics. In this case, deviant overconformity becomes detrimental when the manner of conforming to the norms is limitless. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship of sport deviance and drug use in sport. Review of Research: Sport Deviance amp. Drug Use Relationship Prior to citing the relationship of sport deviance and drug use in sport, it is vital to recognize that sports, since time immemorial, have been considered as an outlet for people to do away from deviant acts. It is believed that through sports a person will be able to build his or her character and values that are acceptable in the norms of society. It is also considered as the most common extracurricular activity of students in any level. For this reason, the American society considered sport as a medium for students, particularly adolescents to become preoccupied and do away from any deviant act (Vermillion, 2007). However, this statement has not been proven by a substantial number of researches. Nonetheless, Schafer (as cited in Snyder, 1994, p. 232) acknowledged few reasons why sports were considered as a medium in lessening deviant behaviors. For instance, as athlete interacts with his co-athletes and coaches with similar views and perception, he or she will most likely do away from thinking and doing the opposite. However, this interaction within the group, which causes teamwork and loyalty, can also allow athletes to create an in-group that will eventually do deviant acts (Snyder, 1994). In the light of drug use, in a universal perspective, people are drug-dependent. There is a frequent act of drug use, not only to the people involved in sports, but also to the public at large (Dunning amp. Waddington, 2003). However, when athletes use performance-enhancement drugs (PEDs), it can be considered as an act of cheating. This act is called doping, where PEDs are intentionally used by athletes in order to boost their performance during the game (Dilger, Frick, amp. Tolsdorf, 2007). In another light, according to Coakley (2009), norms exist in every social world, and they are considered as the benchmark for morality. Therefore, if a person defies these morals or codes, stipulated in the society where he or she belongs, it is considered as deviance. Furthermore, he cited that sport deviance can be classified into two: formal deviance and informal deviance. Formal deviance is the violations of official rules and laws that are punished by official sanctions administered by people in positions of authority (Coakley, 2009, p. 157). On the other hand, informal deviance is the violations of unwritten customs and shared understandings that are punishe